WP8: Mitigation, Policy Options, and Impact Assessment
Coordinated by R. Friedrich (USTUTT) and
D. van den Hout (TNO)
Partners involved: FORTH,
MPIC, ARIANET, CNRS, TNO, MetO, UHam, UH-CAIR, USTUTT, WMO, UCam
Summary of progress toward objectives
There are two WP8 objectives - O8.1:
Analysis and assessment of mitigation options and of policy
options to efficiently reduce health and climate change impacts caused
releases of substances to the air in megacities; and O8.2:
Development and application of a methodology and a tool for
impact assessment - on which the MEGAPOLI teams were focused. During
the 1st reporting period the analysis and assessment of
mitigation and policy options to efficiently reduce health and climate
impacts caused by releases of air pollutants in megacities had been
The 1st level MegaCities (MCs) - London,
Paris, Po Valley, and Rhine-Ruhr area,
plus Mexico City
- were in a
special focus. A city interview protocol (available upon request) was
protocol intended to collect information on locally (that is in the MC
choice) available future environmental and urban planning scenarios as
scenarios for future emissions. After data collection through
the protocol the results
will be synthesized and information to colleagues responsible for the scenario work
within WP8 will be provided. Such interviews are foreseen for
level MCs and, at least,
for part of the 2nd level
although the obtained input may be more generic for these cities as
face-to-face interviews will not always be feasible. All contacts with
administrations have been established by the MEGAPOLI partners
the specific cities.
Summary details for each relevant
WP deliverables, milestones, and tasks
During the 1st year the MEGAPOLI partners
started to work
on Tasks 8.1 (Mitigation and policy
options; lead: USTUTT), 8.2 (Interaction
with megacities administration and other stakeholders; lead: TNO),
(Methodology and tool for impact
assessment; lead: USTUTT). At the
MEGAPOLI 1st annual meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark,
24-25 Sep 2009) a discussion has been taken with all responsible
WP8. The aim of this discussion was to collect all available
determined in the 1st year, the knowledge about key short-,
and long-term abatement and mitigation strategies for megacities. All
principal, are available, but should be consolidated for the
deliverable (D8.1). The summary of this discussion was considered as
achieved milestone (M8.1 - Determination
of key short, medium and long term abatement and mitigation strategies
assess for megacities; Lead: TNO, USTUTT).
Short, Medium and Long Term Abatement and
Mitigation Strategies for Megacities (lead by USTUTT, TNO) - had been
completed - Kampffmeyer T., U.
Kugler, M. Uzbasich, J. Theloke, R. Friedrich, D. van den Hout
(2011): Short, Medium and Long Term Abatement and Mitigation
Strategies for Megacities. Deliverable D8.1, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report
11-06, MEGAPOLI-32-REP-2011-05, 40p.
Methodologies and scientific achievements related to WP including
TNO and UHam Contributions
(development of MegaCity
TNO developed a city interview protocol in collaboration with UHam
(protocol is available upon
request). The protocol intends to collect information on locally (that
the MC of choice) available future environmental and urban planning
as well as scenario's for future emissions. After data
collection through interviews using the protocol TNO and UHAM will synthesize the results and
provide the information on to the colleagues responsible for the scenario work
within WP8. Such interviews
are foreseen for the level 1 MCs and at least part of the level 2 MCs
the obtained input may be more generic for these cities as face-to-face
will not be feasible always.
Contribution (Establishing contacts to Departments in the Po
has started preliminary contacts with people in the technical
the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies of the Po Valley region
the right persons to interview on the basis of the protocol prepared by
the Po Valley, to identify the right person is not straightforward
because Po Valley
is neither and actual city nor an administrative unit, but it is a
area including different Italian regions and cities. The basic idea is
on the Lombardia (and maybe Piedmont) Region as well as cities of Milan and Turin,
which are the largest ones. This activity is still on-going.
the forthcoming activity on mitigation scenarios development, ARIANET
out an inventory of the existing emission scenarios analyses at
sub-national scale in Italy.
As the Po Valley is not enclosed in a unique administrative unit, there
coherent studies concerning future emissions scenarios over the whole
Some Italian Regions (the sub national administrative units in charge
quality management) and some of the largest municipalities are working
future scenarios, but there is not yet a homogeneous and univocal
preliminary analysis of the existing studies and available integrated
assessment tools carried to identify the use of GAINS-Italy scenarios
most feasible approach and starting point to develop MEGAPOLI scenarios.
(Establishing contacts to Departments
in the Rhine-Ruhr Area)
has supported the development of the city interview and dissemination
MEGAPOLI partners. The MCs mitigation and policy options for further
have been collected. USTUTT (together with TNO) was responsible for
and organizing the work in WP8 to the other WP participants. USTUTT has
ensured the needed linkages to other WPs, especially WP1 (Emissions)
(Integration). USTUTT has established contacts to the Environmental
the Rhine-Ruhr area. The basic idea is to focus on all cities in the
and additional cities forming the Rhine area which are the largest one
etc.). The Rhine-Ruhr area has been analyzed and described in details
contacts to the Administration of Paris)
CNRS has established contacts to
will provide the needed contacts to the adminstrative units in the Paris region (City of Paris, plus Region Ile-de-France)
Meanwhile, in the absence of existing well-defined
the horizon of 2030-2050, CNRS also provided a document summarizing the
possible tendencies for the evolution of the urban area of the city.
document was based on the results of a large consultation set up by the
government which provided a social, architectural, economical and
vision of the future Paris
proposed by ten
architects and their pluridisciplinary teams.
UH-CAIR Contribution (Establishing
contacts to the Administration of London)
(together with KCL) has established contacts to the Administration of
Contribution (Quantitative assessment of changes in pollutant
contribution involves mainly the
quantitative assessment of the changes in pollutant concentrations for
different emission control scenarios for the European target
megacities, Mexico City and North-Eastern US.
FORTH has investigated the contributions of
different sources and source regions to the fine particulate matter
concentrations to across the board reductions of the emissions of its
precursors for Mexico City.
These insights can guide the development of emission control policies
corresponding scenarios. We concluded that local emissions have a small
contribution to the sulfate levels in the city, but they do dominate
ammonium nitrate formation. Reductions of both NH3 and/or NOx
are quite efficient in reducing ammonium nitrate levels in this area.
surprisingly large contribution to Mexico City organic aerosol levels
from biomass burning in
the surroundings of the city. Aromatic hydrocarbons are a major source
secondary organic aerosol. Also dust from the dried lake Texcoco
makes a significant contribution to the PM10 levels in the northeast
the city. The official emissions for the industrial area of Tula
(northwest of Mexico City)
appear to have been seriously overestimated. We are currently in the
preparing a publication with these results.
For Mexico City we need to ask
for the help of Luisa Molina who is MEGAPOLI external partner
contacts with the local authorities there.
FORTH plan during the 2nd year is to
use the corresponding emission inventories for different policies/
and estimate their effects on the gas and particulate pollutant
in our target megacities.
and future impacts of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry)
has applied three well-known future scenarios towards studying the
future impacts of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry (Butler and
Lawrence, 2009), which provide
baseline information for use towards understanding local and regional
MetO, WMO, and UCam
It was not foreseen that MetO, UCam and WMO
should contribute during the 1st year.
Socio-economic relevance and policy implications
have been established with the Po Valley area Regional
Environmental Protection Agencies, whom expressed their interest for
the MEGAPOLI project. The meeting with AIRPARIF (the emission and air
authority in Paris)
was organised where the MEGAPOLI project was presented. Through the
collaboration the access to local (Ile de France) spatial planning
necessary for scenario development may result. A Socio-Economic
analysis of the
Rhine-Ruhr area has been done, and contacts to the relevant
units have been established. In general, there is a great interest at
emission authorities for assessing mitigation and policy options.
Discussion and conclusion
WP8 is well on its way to deliver the needed
output for other
WPs. Contacting of local authorities is successful, which is an
achievement, as this is critical to the success of MEGAPOLI. The
the final list of measures and policy option and the development of an
assessment tool is on time. The filled in city interview protocols will
evaluated soon for the 1st level MEGAPOLI megacities and Mexico City.
List of WP8 reports, publications,
and M. G. Lawrence, The influence of megacities on global atmospheric
a modelling study, Environ. Chem. 2009, 6, 219-225.
V., Theloke, J., Thiruchittampalam, B., Kugler, U., Geftler, T.,
Uzbasich, M., Köble, R., Friedrich, R., Dämmgen, U., Stern, R.,
Denier van der Gon, H., Kuhn, A., (2009):
measure-based approach to fulfil European air quality targets
a national level - First results of the German PAREST-project. TFIAM
Meeting, 10. Juni, Bilthoven, Niederlande
Theloke, J., Thiruchittampalam, B., Geftler, T., Uzbasich, M., Köble,
Friedrich, R., Builtjes, P., Denier van der Gon, H., Stern, R., Jörß,
Dämmgen, U. and J. Appelhans (2009): Abatement strategies to reduce air
pollution from transport in Germany.
Presentation, International Conference on Transport, Atmosphere and
(TAC-2), 22-25 June 2009, Aachen,
Pacyna, J., Pacyna, E. and R. Friedrich (2009): Assessment of heavy
releases from the use phase of road transport in Europe.
Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009), 640-647, Elsevier
T., Friedrich, R.
(2009): Effective pollutant emission heights
for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.
Environmental Pollution 157, S. 552-560
(2009): Compilation of emission inventories in high resolution for Germany.
PM 2.5 Workshop, April, Bilthoven, Niederlande
Fantke, P., Friedrich, R., Kummer, U., Nitter, S., Pacyna, E.G.,
Strzelecka-Jastrzab, E., Thiruchittampalam, B. (2009): A
Heavy metal and POP inventory for Europe.
TFHTAP Meeting, März, St.
Thiruchittampalam, B., Geftler, T., Kummer, U., Uzbasich, M., Wagner,
Friedrich, R., Köble, R. (2009): Emissionsinventare als Grundlage der
Ursachenermittlung und Erfassung von Luftbelastungen. Mitt
Umweltchem Ökotox, 15. Jahrg. 2009/ Nr. 2, S. 33-35, Hrsg. Gesellschaft
Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Frankfurt am Main
B., Köble, R., Latoska, A., Theloke, J., Uzbasich, M.,
Kugler, U., Geftler, T., Wagner, S., Friedrich, R. (2009): Fossil Fuel
modelling - Approach and Results for Carbon Dioxide in Europe. 8th
International Carbon Dioxide Conference, September, Jena
Beletskaya, O., Kummer, U., Theloke, J., Angenendt, E., Friedrich, R.,
J. (2009): Assessment of mitigation measures for air pollutants and
gases from agricultural systems in Germany at high spatial
AgSAP-Konferenz, 10.-12. Marz, Egmond an Zee, Niederlande