WP8: Mitigation, Policy Options, and Impact Assessment


Coordinated by R. Friedrich (USTUTT) and D. van den Hout (TNO)



Summary of progress toward objectives

There are two WP8 objectives - O8.1: Analysis and assessment of mitigation options and of policy options to efficiently reduce health and climate change impacts caused by releases of substances to the air in megacities; and O8.2: Development and application of a methodology and a tool for impact assessment - on which the MEGAPOLI teams were focused. During the 1st reporting period the analysis and assessment of mitigation and policy options to efficiently reduce health and climate change impacts caused by releases of air pollutants in megacities had been performed. The 1st level MegaCities (MCs) - London, Paris, Po Valley, and Rhine-Ruhr area, plus Mexico City - were in a special focus. A city interview protocol (available upon request) was developed. The protocol intended to collect information on locally (that is in the MC of choice) available future environmental and urban planning scenarios as well as scenarios for future emissions. After data collection through interviews using the protocol the results will be synthesized and information to colleagues responsible for the scenario work within WP8 will be provided. Such interviews are foreseen for the 1st level MCs and, at least, for part of the 2nd level MCs although the obtained input may be more generic for these cities as face-to-face interviews will not always be feasible. All contacts with the MCs administrations have been established by the MEGAPOLI partners responsible for the specific cities.


Summary details for each relevant WP deliverables, milestones, and tasks

During the 1st year the MEGAPOLI partners started to work on Tasks 8.1 (Mitigation and policy options; lead: USTUTT), 8.2 (Interaction with megacities administration and other stakeholders; lead: TNO), and 8.3 (Methodology and tool for impact assessment; lead: USTUTT). At the MEGAPOLI 1st annual meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, 24-25 Sep 2009) a discussion has been taken with all responsible partners of WP8. The aim of this discussion was to collect all available information determined in the 1st year, the knowledge about key short-, medium- and long-term abatement and mitigation strategies for megacities. All data, in principal, are available, but should be consolidated for the corresponding deliverable (D8.1). The summary of this discussion was considered as the achieved milestone (M8.1 - Determination of key short, medium and long term abatement and mitigation strategies to assess for megacities; Lead: TNO, USTUTT).

Deliverable D8.1: Short, Medium and Long Term Abatement and Mitigation Strategies for Megacities (lead by USTUTT, TNO) - had been completed - Kampffmeyer T., U. Kugler, M. Uzbasich, J. Theloke, R. Friedrich, D. van den Hout (2011):  Short, Medium and Long Term Abatement and Mitigation Strategies for Megacities. Deliverable D8.1, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 11-06, MEGAPOLI-32-REP-2011-05, 40p.

Significant results: Methodologies and scientific achievements related to WP including partners' contributions

TNO and UHam Contributions (development of MegaCity protocol)

TNO developed a city interview protocol in collaboration with UHam (protocol is available upon request). The protocol intends to collect information on locally (that is in the MC of choice) available future environmental and urban planning scenarios as well as scenario's for future emissions. After data collection through interviews using the protocol TNO and UHAM will synthesize the results and provide the information on to the colleagues responsible for the scenario work within WP8. Such interviews are foreseen for the level 1 MCs and at least part of the level 2 MCs although the obtained input may be more generic for these cities as face-to-face interviews will not be feasible always.

ARIANET Contribution (Establishing contacts to Departments in the Po Valley)

ARIANET has started preliminary contacts with people in the technical departments of the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies of the Po Valley region to individuate the right persons to interview on the basis of the protocol prepared by TNO.
For the Po Valley, to identify the right person is not straightforward because Po Valley is neither and actual city nor an administrative unit, but it is a geographic area including different Italian regions and cities. The basic idea is to focus on the Lombardia (and maybe Piedmont) Region as well as cities of Milan and Turin, which are the largest ones. This activity is still on-going.
Concerning the forthcoming activity on mitigation scenarios development, ARIANET has carried out an inventory of the existing emission scenarios analyses at national and sub-national scale in Italy. As the Po Valley is not enclosed in a unique administrative unit, there are no coherent studies concerning future emissions scenarios over the whole area. Some Italian Regions (the sub national administrative units in charge for air quality management) and some of the largest municipalities are working on future scenarios, but there is not yet a homogeneous and univocal approach.
The preliminary analysis of the existing studies and available integrated assessment tools carried to identify the use of GAINS-Italy scenarios as the most feasible approach and starting point to develop MEGAPOLI scenarios.

USTUTT Contribution (Establishing contacts to Departments in the Rhine-Ruhr Area)

USTUTT has supported the development of the city interview and dissemination to the MEGAPOLI partners. The MCs mitigation and policy options for further assessment have been collected. USTUTT (together with TNO) was responsible for structuring and organizing the work in WP8 to the other WP participants. USTUTT has been ensured the needed linkages to other WPs, especially WP1 (Emissions) and WP7 (Integration). USTUTT has established contacts to the Environmental agencies in the Rhine-Ruhr area. The basic idea is to focus on all cities in the Ruhr area and additional cities forming the Rhine area which are the largest one (e.g. Cologne, Dusseldorf, etc.). The Rhine-Ruhr area has been analyzed and described in details under socio-economic aspects.

CNRS Contribution (Establishing contacts to the Administration of Paris)

CNRS has established contacts to AIRPARIF, which will provide the needed contacts to the adminstrative units in the Paris region (City of Paris, plus Region Ile-de-France)
Meanwhile, in the absence of existing well-defined urban scenarios for Paris at the horizon of 2030-2050, CNRS also provided a document summarizing the possible tendencies for the evolution of the urban area of the city. This document was based on the results of a large consultation set up by the French government which provided a social, architectural, economical and environmental vision of the future Paris Megacity as proposed by ten architects and their pluridisciplinary teams.
UH-CAIR Contribution (Establishing contacts to the Administration of London)
UH-CAIR (together with KCL) has established contacts to the Administration of London.

FORTH Contribution (Quantitative assessment of changes in pollutant concentrations)

FORTH contribution involves mainly the quantitative assessment of the changes in pollutant concentrations for different emission control scenarios for the European target megacities, Mexico City and North-Eastern US.
FORTH has investigated the contributions of different sources and source regions to the fine particulate matter concentrations to across the board reductions of the emissions of its major precursors for Mexico City. These insights can guide the development of emission control policies and the corresponding scenarios. We concluded that local emissions have a small contribution to the sulfate levels in the city, but they do dominate the ammonium nitrate formation. Reductions of both NH3 and/or NOx are quite efficient in reducing ammonium nitrate levels in this area. There is surprisingly large contribution to Mexico City organic aerosol levels from biomass burning in the surroundings of the city. Aromatic hydrocarbons are a major source of secondary organic aerosol. Also dust from the dried lake Texcoco makes a significant contribution to the PM10 levels in the northeast part of the city. The official emissions for the industrial area of Tula (northwest of Mexico City) appear to have been seriously overestimated. We are currently in the process of preparing a publication with these results.
For Mexico City we need to ask for the help of Luisa Molina who is MEGAPOLI external partner responsible for contacts with the local authorities there.
FORTH plan during the 2nd year is to use the corresponding emission inventories for different policies/ scenarios and estimate their effects on the gas and particulate pollutant concentrations in our target megacities.

MPI Contribution (Studying current and future impacts of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry)

MPI has applied three well-known future scenarios towards studying the current and future impacts of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry (Butler and Lawrence, 2009), which provide baseline information for use towards understanding local and regional mitigation options.

MetO, WMO, and UCam Contribution

It was not foreseen that MetO, UCam and WMO should contribute during the 1st year.

Socio-economic relevance and policy implications

Contacts have been established with the Po Valley area Regional Environmental Protection Agencies, whom expressed their interest for supporting the MEGAPOLI project. The meeting with AIRPARIF (the emission and air quality authority in Paris) was organised where the MEGAPOLI project was presented. Through the established collaboration the access to local (Ile de France) spatial planning institutes necessary for scenario development may result. A Socio-Economic analysis of the Rhine-Ruhr area has been done, and contacts to the relevant administrative units have been established. In general, there is a great interest at local emission authorities for assessing mitigation and policy options.


Discussion and conclusion
The WP8 is well on its way to deliver the needed output for other WPs. Contacting of local authorities is successful, which is an important achievement, as this is critical to the success of MEGAPOLI. The collecting of the final list of measures and policy option and the development of an assessment tool is on time. The filled in city interview protocols will be evaluated soon for the 1st level MEGAPOLI megacities and Mexico City.


List of WP8 reports, publications, presentations

Butler T. M. and M. G. Lawrence, The influence of megacities on global atmospheric chemistry: a modelling study, Environ. Chem. 2009, 6, 219-225. doi:10.1071/EN08110

Klotz, V., Theloke, J., Thiruchittampalam, B., Kugler, U., Geftler, T., Uzbasich, M., Köble, R., Friedrich, R., Dämmgen, U., Stern, R., Builtjes, P., Denier van der Gon, H., Kuhn, A., (2009): An integrated measure-based approach to fulfil European air quality targets cost-effective on a national level - First results of the German PAREST-project. TFIAM Meeting, 10. Juni, Bilthoven, Niederlande

Kugler, U., Theloke, J., Thiruchittampalam, B., Geftler, T., Uzbasich, M., Köble, R., Friedrich, R., Builtjes, P., Denier van der Gon, H., Stern, R., Jörß, W., Dämmgen, U. and J. Appelhans (2009): Abatement strategies to reduce air pollution from transport in Germany. Presentation, International Conference on Transport, Atmosphere and Climate (TAC-2), 22-25 June 2009, Aachen, Germany

Kummer, U., Pacyna, J., Pacyna, E. and R. Friedrich (2009): Assessment of heavy metal releases from the use phase of road transport in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009), 640-647, Elsevier

Pregger, T., Friedrich, R. (2009): Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information. Environmental Pollution 157, S. 552-560

Theloke, J. (2009): Compilation of emission inventories in high resolution for Germany. PM 2.5 Workshop, April, Bilthoven, Niederlande

Theloke, J., Fantke, P., Friedrich, R., Kummer, U., Nitter, S., Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J., Strzelecka-Jastrzab, E., Thiruchittampalam, B. (2009): A Heavy metal and POP inventory for Europe. TFHTAP Meeting, März, St. Petersburg, Russland

Theloke, J., Thiruchittampalam, B., Geftler, T., Kummer, U., Uzbasich, M., Wagner, S., Friedrich, R., Köble, R. (2009): Emissionsinventare als Grundlage der Ursachenermittlung und Erfassung von Luftbelastungen. Mitt Umweltchem Ökotox, 15. Jahrg. 2009/ Nr. 2, S. 33-35, Hrsg. Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Frankfurt am Main

Thiruchittampalam, B., Köble, R., Latoska, A., Theloke, J., Uzbasich, M., Kugler, U., Geftler, T., Wagner, S., Friedrich, R. (2009): Fossil Fuel emission modelling - Approach and Results for Carbon Dioxide in Europe. 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, September, Jena

Wagner, S., Beletskaya, O., Kummer, U., Theloke, J., Angenendt, E., Friedrich, R., Zeddies, J. (2009): Assessment of mitigation measures for air pollutants and greenhouse gases from agricultural systems in Germany at high spatial resolution. AgSAP-Konferenz, 10.-12. Marz, Egmond an Zee, Niederlande

FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011