WP7: Integrated Tools and Implementation
Coordinated by R. Sokhi (UH-CAIR) and
Partners involved: DMI,
FORTH, ARIANET, AUTH, CNRS, FMI, MetO, UHam, UH-CAIR, USTUTT, WMO
Summary of progress toward objectives
main objectives of this WP are listed below:
synthesise information on emissions, meteorology, processes, air
quality, climate and model developments from other WPs.
synthesise knowledge and stimulate scientific consensus on the
required complexity of model systems for mitigation/policy needs.
develop a European framework for coupling urban-regional-global
modelling tools to examine science and policy problems identified in
apply integrated tools to study the air quality and climate
change interactions and impact for selected megacities on urban,
make recommendations on the improved understanding of megacity
impacts on regional and global air quality and climate.
The first 18 months has focussed on developing a
work plan for the
WP in particular providing a framework for producing the synthesis of
knowledge. Each WP leader has been responsible for including and
element into their work plans and will identify how their outcomes will
answer the key science questions. Progress on producing a European
for online and offline coupling models for air quality and climate
already underway and a report has been produced (D7.1). Progress has
made to identify the cities to which the integrated tools will be
has been used as a
case study to develop a strategy of implementing meteorological,
chemistry-transport and climate models for regional and global scales
within a 'common' approach. This is being undertaken in close
cooperation with WP4 and
WP5. There will be a responsible partner for each Case Study City. In
partners will be involved. A Case Study plan is being developed for London and currently involves UH-CAIR,
UK Met Office, KCL, Cambridge and
Summary details for each relevant
WP deliverables, milestones, and tasks
Task 7.1: Synthesis of
outcomes of WPs - in relation to scientific knowledge and adequacy of
for mitigation measures and policy needs (lead: UH-CAIR + UHam, DMI, MPIC, FORTH,
The task spans most
of the duration of the project and involves cooperation with other WPs.
aim is to develop common framework for modeling tools which allow the
between air quality and climate change to investigated. The task
issues related to emissions, air quality and climate aspects on
global scale. The framework (as developed in Task 7.2) will address
multi-scales (urban to global), multi-pollutant (e.g. O3, PM, NO2) and
quality climate feedback processes (e.g. for aerosols). This task will
the scientific basis for the integrated modeling framework. This Task
continually interact with other WPs to ensure that interfaces, modules
parameterisation schemes meet the requirements of Task 7.2.
partners will be involved in this task with key contributions from
UHam, DMI, MPIC, FORTH, CNRS and FMI.
outputs of WP2 will also be important for simpler modelling tools which
examined and developed in WP4 but implemented for selected megacities
7.4 of this WP.
In the first phase
of the project the following key high level tasks have been considered:
Develop and evaluate integrated methodologies to improve emission data
on regional through global scales; (Objective 1); T8: Develop improved
integrated tools for prediction of air pollution in megacities;
and T9: Evaluate these integrated modelling tools and use them in case
for selected megacities; (Objective 3).
essential to develop the integrated approaches needed to undertake the
case studies and will the following questions (for example) such as to
do megacities affect air quality on regional and global scales? What is
range of influence for major air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter,
are the major physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants
are moving away from megacities? What happens to the organic
matter, volatile organic compounds, etc? (Objective 1)
large is the current impact of megacities on regional and global
are key feedbacks between air quality, local climate and global climate
change relevant to megacities? For example, how will climate change
quality in megacities? (Objective 2)
type of modelling tools should be used for the simulation of
megacity air quality - climate interactions? (Objective 3)
7.2: Formulation and development of an
integration framework (lead: DMI + UH-CAIR, UHam,
FMI, ARIANET, UKMO)
A framework for mode integration
developed in collaboration with COST 728. The framework incorporates
following three levels of integration: Level 1 - One way, Level 2 - two
Level 3 - fully coupled.
Processes involving nonlinear interactions and
emissions, chemistry and meteorology require coherent and robust
using integrated/online methods. This is particularly important where
spatial and temporal scales are involved with a complex mixture of
from large sources, as in the case of megacities. The impacts of
megacities on the
atmospheric environment are tied directly to anthropogenic activities
sources of air pollution.
These impacts act on urban, regional and global
there were only limited attempts to integrate this wide range of scales
regional and global air quality and climate applications. Indeed,
scale and process interactions has been limited because of the tendency
focus mainly on issues arising at specific scales. However the
factors between megacities and their impacts on the environment rely on
whole range of scales and thus should be considered within an
framework bringing together the treatment of emissions, chemistry and
meteorology in a consistent modelling approach. Numerical weather and
pollution prediction models are now able to approach urban-scale
detailed input data are becoming more often available. As a result the
conventional concepts of down- (and up-) scaling for air pollution
need revision along the lines of integration of multi-scale
chemical transport models. MEGAPOLI aims at developing a comprehensive
integrated modelling framework usable by the research community which
tested and implemented for a range of megacities within Europe
and across the world to increase our understanding of how large urban
other hotspots affect air quality and climate on multiple scales.
The integration strategy in MEGAPOLI is not focused
particular meteorological and/or air pollution modelling system. The
considers an open integrated framework with flexible architecture and
possibility of incorporating different meteorological and chemical
models. The following levels of integration and orders of complexity
- Level 1 - One way (Global ->
regional -> urban), Models: All
- Level 2 - Two way (Global
<-> regional <-> urban), Models: ECHAM5/MESSy, MATCH-MPIC,
UM-WRF-CMAQ, SILAM, M-SYS, FARM .
- Order A - off-line, meteorology
/ emissions -> chemistry, Models: All
- Order B - partly online,
meteorology -> chemistry & emissions, Models: UKCA, DMAT, M-SYS, UM-WRF-Chem, SILAM
- Order C - fully online,
meteorology <-> chemistry & emissions, Models: UKCA,
Where required new
or improved interfaces for coupling (direct links
between emissions, chemistry and meteorology at every time step) are
Common formats for data exchange (such as GRIB, netCDF formats) is
ease the implementation and to help combine the different models via
data exchange protocols. The current, chemistry schemes (tropospheric,
stratospheric and UTLS) are examined as to their suitability for
impact of complex emissions from megacities. The coupled model systems
applied to different European megacities during the development phases
project. The framework will be used and demonstrated for selected
including UKCA (MetO), WRF-Chem (UH-CAIR), Enviro-HIRLAM (DMI),
(ARIANET), M-SYS (UHam) and ECHAM5/MESSy and UKCA on different scales.
This part of the work is linked to the requirements
and use of
simpler tools for assessing air quality impacts within megacities
UH-CAIR, AIRQUIS - NILU, URBIS - TNO).
Evaluation of integrated methods and models for risk/impact
quantification (lead: UHam)
Considerable progress on model
been made through the COST 728 Action. MEGAPOLI will extend this work
include evaluation of risk and impact based models. This work will form
the next phase. An extensive
review of model evaluation methodologies can be found in Schluenzen
and Sokhi (2008).
Implementation of integrated tools to megacities (lead: WMO with
An initial list of
cities and responsible partners which will be involved in the
the integrated models is provided below:
Paris (All partners)
UK Met Office, Cambridge, KCL
(STEM/FARM, ARIANET; CHIMERE, CNRS)
MPIC; WRF-Chem ,UH-CAIR)
A London case study
technical plan is
being produced to investigate the impact of climate change on air
quality of London
and the surrounding
region. It will serve as an example for the other case study cities.
elements of the protocols include:
KCL - measurements
Met Office - UKCA and Climate,
UH-CAIR - WRF-CMAQ, WRF-Chem applications,
Simulation with CHIMERE,
FMI - collaboration with UH-CAIR.
Involvement of stakeholders and data
Greater London Authority (GLA)
Transport for London (TfL)
Available measurements: London Air Quality Network (long term
with some meteorological data (urban and airport)
Emissions - NAEI - 2006, 1 x 1 km incorporated into
TNO/MEGAPOLI European emissions.
Science questions to be investigated and
What key meteorological
processes are responsible for LRT resulting from and entering into London (including
variations)? - 'megacity plume study'
- How do the global air pollution
levels of aerosols and gaseous species affect London's air quality and hence
Global model BC: UM-UKCA (UCam), GEOS-Chem (UH-CAIR)
Regional model: WRF-CMAQ
- How will London's
air quality be affected by
anthropogenic emission changes for years 2020 and 2050?
HadGEM2 with UKCA
climate change effects)
WRF-CMAQ, WRF-Chem (UH-CAIR), UM
- How will London's
air quality be affected by
anthropogenic climate change for years 2020 and 2050?
HadGEM2 with UKCA
WRF-CMAQ, WRF-Chem (UH-CAIR), UM
Recommendations on the
scientific analysis of megacity impacts on regional and global air
climate (lead: UH-CAIR + all)
As the outcomes from WPs are
produced they will
be linked to the key science questions. It is expected that there will
direct links to WP8 on mitigation and policy.
(Determination of characteristics of the initial integration
framework and model evaluation; lead: MPIC and UHam) met on the
D7.1: (Framework for
tools; lead by DMI) had been
completed and is available
Baklanov A. (Ed.) (2010):
Framework for integrating tools. Deliverable D7.1, MEGAPOLI Scientific
Report 10-11, MEGAPOLI-14-REP-2010-03, 68p,
D7.2: (Evaluation of integrated tools;
lead by UHam) had been
completed and is available
Schlünzen K.H., M. Haller
(Eds) (2011): Evaluation of
Integrated Tools. Deliverable D7.2,
Report 11-03, MEGAPOLI-29-REP-2011-03, 51p,
of Integrated Models for Megacities.
lead by UH-CAIR) had been
completed and is available
Francis X.V., Sokhi R.S. (Eds) (2011):
Implementation of Integrated Models for Megacities. Deliverable D7.3,
MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 11-21, MEGAPOLI-47-REP-2011-09, 74p,
Methodologies and scientific achievements related to WP including
The main result is
that the framework for integrating models has
been agreed in collaboration with COST 728. After further refinement a
has been produced by month 18 (D7.1). Contributions from each partner
in the WP are summarised below:
A framework for integrated modelling of air quality and
impacts of megacities has been developed. The framework builds upon the
few initiatives for integrated tools do exist in Europe,
e.g. ENVIRO-HIRLAM (see for instance Chenevez
et al. 2004; Baklanov et al., 2008; Korsholm, 2009), PRISM (Valcke et al. 2006), UKCA (in
development, http://www.ukca.ac.uk), COSMOS (in development,
http://cosmos.enes.org), M-SYS (Trukenmuller
et al., 2004) and would eventually be considered in MEGAPOLI.
frameworks are being developed in the USA, such as ESMF (e.g. Dickenson et al. 2002). The WRF-Chem
model (Grell et al. 2005), which has
been developed within the WRF collaborative framework, will also be
This integrated model has been successfully applied to the Mexico City
metropolitan area in order to
study the origin and evolution of ozone for a pollution event in May
2003 (Tie et al. 2007). The strategy adopted
in MEGAPOLI will benefit from the existing integrated frameworks and
would be embedded within a European modelling strategy. With the
megacities in mind, the 'integration' needs to be fully achieved down
scales (e.g. Baklanov et al. 2002, 2008).
MEGAPOLI is thus addressed the difficulties arising from the treatment
multi-scale and multi-process nature of the integration procedure down
city scale. Main advantages of on-line &
modelling approaches are the following (Baklanov
et al., 2008):
- Only one grid; No interpolation
- No time interpolation;
- Physical parameterizations are
the same; No inconsistencies;
- All 3D meteorological variables
are available at the right time (each time step); No restriction in
of meteorological fields;
- Possibility to consider
- Does not need meteo-
pre/post-processors resulting in the reduction of IO operations
- Possibility of independent
- Low computational cost (if
meteorology data are already available and no need to run
- More suitable for ensembles and
- Easier to use for the inverse
modelling and adjoint problem;
- Independence of
atmospheric pollution model runs on meteorological model computations;
- More flexible grid construction
and generation for ACT models,
- Suitable for emission scenarios
analysis and air quality management.
key issue related to integrated modelling is to decide on the
methodologies for coupling the chemistry and transport modules of the
step towards standardisation of interfacing was successfully taken for
modelling by the European PRISM initiative and their OASIS coupler and
recent developments. Whether these couplers will become general on the
scale and will be adapted to the regional and local scale for the
also in AQ applications remains to be seen in the future. Other
like urban interfaces/postprocessors to MetMs will address more
smaller communities of users.
A general recommendation for all designers of
couplers may be to build interfaces with flexible, generalized
and as modular as possible also concerning their internal structure and
contents. Comprehensive documentation as well as user guidelines and
will enhance the applicability of the interface. Provision as
software will also increase the acceptance and use of these interfaces.
contribution involves mainly the
quantitative assessment of the changes in pollutant concentrations for
different emission control scenarios for the European target
megacities, Mexico City and North-Eastern US. FORTH has
investigated the contributions of different sources and source regions
fine particulate matter concentrations to across the board reductions
emissions of its major precursors for Mexico City. These insights can guide
the development of
emission control policies and the corresponding scenarios. FORTH plan
the 2nd year is to use the corresponding emission
different policies/ scenarios and estimate their effects on the gas and
particulate pollutant concentrations in our target megacities.
ARIANET team has conducted long-term
evaluations of air pollution in the Po Valley region. The chemistry
the global models used at MPIC and MetO have been substantially
extended (e.g., Folberth et al., 2009ab)
and, for instance, oxidation pathways have been studied (Butler, 2009). The effect of megacities on the
chemistry of the global atmosphere has been determined (Butler and Lawrence, 2009).
Meteorological runs for Paris with the
MEMO model have been performed
by AUTH. Use of urban morphology data and a two-way coupling
the microscale model (Tsegas et al, 2008; Tsegas et al, 2009) is being explored for a nested grid of 300 x
km2 and 50 x 50 km2 domains. An online version of
MEMO/MARS is also being developed to understand aerosol effects.
methodology based on CHIMERE modelling systems has been developed
by CNRS-LISA to simulate meso-to-urban scale
transport for the Paris
area during the 2009 campaign period. CNRS will also contribute to the London case study
provide comparative data along with other model simulations.
emissions including fires have been calculated and employed
in an offline SILAM model on European scales. A morphological database
been developed for Paris
providing finer resolved information for advanced models.
climate model HadGEM2 is being employed to model the impact
of megacities on global scales. The model outputs will be used to
boundary conditions for regional models. In particular a combination of
and regional models will be used for the London
key aspect of MEGAPLI is to develop a strategy to evaluate the
performance of complex models and to quantify the main uncertainties.
coordinating this activity based on the framework developed in COST 728.
for a London
case study have been developed. Model preparation have been started and
emissions have been prepared for 2005 and for July 2009 (for Paris). Through
collaboration with global
climate modellers (UCam and MetO), an integrated framework will be
to quantify the impact of climate change on London's air quality. Such a
also allow the influence of global boundary conditions on regional
quality to be quantified. In order to investigate the effect of climate
on air quality simulations will be performed with HadGEM2 and WRF/CMAQ
(base year), 2020 and 2050.
applications are being tailored for selected case studies
including non-European megacities. USTUTT is actively developing policy
scenarios as well as mitigation options for use for case studies
direct link between WP7 and WP8 is provided by WMO. Outcomes of
WP7 will feed into Task 8.3 which deals with a methodology for impact
Socio-economic relevance and policy implications
Implications of implementing integrated models to
quality and climate change issues is highly relevant for policy makers
hence to society in general. These implications will be explored
through dialogue and cooperation with other projects and organisations.
Discussion and conclusion
relies on timely
outcomes from the other WPs. Each WP leader is responsible to identify
deliverables that will facilitate the synergy of knowledge and
integrated modelling methodologies that bring together air quality and
multiple scales and multiple pollutants.
for an integrated modelling
framework has been developed with collaboration with COST 728.
initial selection of megacities and
responsible partners has been made. The availability of emission and
data is being explored and a common evaluation framework is being
collaboration with COST 728).
approaches: where possible common and
harmonised approaches are being implemented. They will include aspects
evaluation including the use of the ENSEMBLE System
(in collaboration with COST 728 and JRC).
case study has been defined to investigate the impact of climate change
quality within the city and in the surrounding regions.
List of WP7 reports, publications,
Korsholm U.S., A. Baklanov, A.
J.H.Sorensen, "In the importance of the meteorological coupling
in dispersion modeling during ETEX-1". Atmos.
Environ., 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.11.017.
Baklanov A., "Integrated
Meteorology and Atmospheric Chemical Transport Modelling Perspectives
Strategy for Hirlam/Harmonie". HIRLAM
Newsletter, vol. no. 53, pp. 56-68, (2008).
Baklanov A., U. S. Korsholm,
A. Mahura, C. Petersen, A. Gross, "Enviro-HIRLAM: on-line coupled
of urban meteorology and air pollution, Advances
in Science and Research, Vol. 2, pp. 41-46, (2008).
Baklanov, A., 2009: Chemical
weather forecasting: a new concept and methodology of two-way
meso-scale modelling. In: Mesometeorology and Air pollution. COST728 Special Issue of Ukr. Hydrometeor.
Journal, Vol. 4, pp. 109-120.
R. San Jose, A. Baklanov, R.S. Sokhi, K.
Karatzas, J.L. Perez. Air Quality Modeling. Encyclopaedia
of Ecology, 2008, pp. 111-123
R.-M. Hu, R.S. Sokhi, B.E.A.
Fisher. New algorithms and their application for satellite remote
surface PM2.5 and aerosol absorption. Journal
of Aerosol Science 40 (2009) 394-402
R S Sokhi (ed) Atmospheric
Environment Urban Air Quality - Selected
Papers from the 6th International Conference on Urban Air Quality.
43, Issue 31, pp. 4669-4854 (October
Monks, P.S., C. Granier, S. Fuzzi, A. Stohl, M. Williams, H. Akimoto, M.
Baklanov, U. Baltensperger, I. Bey,
R.S. Blake, K. Carslaw, O.R. Cooper, F. Dentener, D. Fowler, E.
Frost, S. Generoso, P. Ginoux, V. Grewet, A. Guenther, H.C. Hansson, S.
J. Hjorth, A. Hofzumahaus, H. Huntrieser, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.E.
Jenkin, J. Kaiser, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, M. Kulmala, P. Laj, M.G.
J.D. Lee, C. Liousse, M. Maione, G. McFiggans, A. Metzger, A. Mieville,
Moussiopoulos, J.J. Orlando, C. O?Dowd, P.I. Palmer, D.D. Parrish, A.
U. Platt, U. Poeschl, A.S.H. Prevot, C.E. Reeves, S. Reimann, Y.
Sellegri, R. Steinbrecher, D. Simpson, H. ten Brink, J. Theloke, G.R.
Werf, R. Vautard, V. Vestreng, Ch. Vlachokostas, R. vonGlasow (2009):
Atmospheric composition change:
global and regional air quality. Atmospheric Environment, 43: 5268-5350.
Baklanov, A., A. Mahura, R.
Sokhi (eds.) 2010: Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and
transport models, 183 p., Book to be
published by Springer (in press). Available from:
Schluenzen K.H., Grawe D., Bohnenstengel S.I., Schlueter I., Koppmann
R. (2011): Joint modelling of obstacle induced and mesoscale changes -
current limits and challenges. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 99,