Megacity Air Quality
Coordinated by N. Moussiopoulos
Partners involved: DMI,
AUTH, CNRS, FMI, NILU, UHel, UH-CAIR
Summary of progress toward objectives
Several physical and chemical
have already been implemented and are being tested in several
megacities (e.g. Paris,
City and Po Valley). Results of the performance evaluation of these
already being analysed and are revealing clues about the relative
the various parameterisations when examining megacity air quality and
especially its relation to meteorology.
Progress is also being made
relation to the
assessment of source contribution in megacities, the main focus being
conurbation. For the
moment, well known source apportionment methodologies are being tested
synthetic cases in order to evaluate the requirements and performance
of them and later proceed with well informed choices in the case study
modelling groups in WP4 have been initiated in order to explore the
possibilities of using source apportionment findings in order to
In the oncoming
months, WP4 groups will seek to finalise the concrete performance
the proposed zooming approaches, while ideas and suggestions are
being tested and challenged through application in urban test cases. We
that the ongoing work on validation cases involving the 1st
MEGAPOLI regions will provide significant benefits on the improvement
methodologies, as well as the necessary calibration of existing
Summary details for each relevant WP deliverables,
milestones, and tasks
Task 4.1: Multiscale
physical processes - from the city to the street scale (lead: AUTH)
A variety of zooming approaches
have been investigated by the MEGAPOLI WP4 teams for enhancing the
treatment of multiscale physical effects in existing and novel model
The aim of such approaches is to improve modelling skill in simulating
small-scale features through the use of dynamical downscaling (usually
form of model coupling), introduction of improved parameterisations for
scale-specific processes and support for flexible nesting of
Interpolating metamodels have been suggested as an
efficient means for
implementing an effective two-way coupling between prognostic mesoscale
microscale models for flow calculations in densely-built urban areas. A
scheme was developed for introducing effects of the urban canopy
the microscale into a mesoscale calculation, by means of a two-way
between the mesoscale MEMO model (Moussiopoulos
1993) and the microscale model MIMO (Ehrhard et al,
2000). A multi-dimensional
interpolating metamodel is used as a computationally economical
complex microscale calculations, enabling the bidirectional offline
between the two scales (Tsegas et al,
2008; 2009). The metamodel is calibrated over a sample set of
calculations in representative domains within the urban area under
(Figure 4.1.1a). During the two-way coupled run, area-averaged feedback
microscale metamodel is assimilated back into the mesoscale domain by
Newtonian relaxation. The coupled MEMO-MIMO system was used to simulate
fields over the Paris
greater area. The baseline
performance of the
mesoscale model was evaluated by comparing calculated quantities to
measurements of meteorological parameters at several locations in and
area during the simulation period. Furthermore, quantities calculated
nested domains were used in the comparison, in order to assess the
spatial discretisation as well as the small-scale forcings of the fine
the simulation accuracy. A successful application of any
obstacle-resolving Microscale/CFD flow model requires the availability
of high-quality, high-accuracy geometrical and morphology data.
Sievinen et al (2009) have prepared a set of digital elevation maps
(DEMs) covering an extended central area in Paris. An additional set of
building height maps, generated by superimposing average urban height
maps with detailed street and building geometry data, was used as a
basis for determining the obstacle geometry of the metamodel
calibration locations (Figure 4.1.1b). See
more details in MEGAPOLI
4.1.1 : (a) A
scheme for enabling offline coupling between the mesoscale
MEMO and the microscale/CFD model MIMO; and (b) 3D visualisation of
urban canopy structure for a downtown location in Paris.
effects in meteorological mesoscale modelling
have a significant impact on the earth’s
by scattering and absorbing solar radiation thus decreasing the
absorbed at the surface and increasing low-level static stability.
becoming an important tool for investigating the intricate feedback
involved in the direct and indirect aerosol effects, further driving
ongoing evolution of computational tools towards the integration of
meteorological and chemical-dispersion models. Recent developments in
pollution modelling have focused on the introduction of on-line
between aerosol modules and the driving meteorological models, aiming
to a more
accurate description of aerosol-induced radiative forcings in the
Aiming at a more accurate description of the
the direct aerosol effect, an on-line coupled system was developed
of the mesoscale Eulerian meteorological model MEMO and the chemical
model MARS-aero (Halmer, 2010).
During the coupled operation, the 3D
concentration fields calculated by MARS-aero are introduced back as
the enhanced radiation module of MEMO by means of the OPAC (Optical
of Aerosols and Clouds) software library. For the calculation of the
optical properties, number densities for several of the OPAC aerosol
types are obtained from the concentration fields of appropriate aerosol
aggregates which are provided by MARS-aero.
A synthetic test case was used to investigate the
aerosols on the radiation budget over a specified mesoscale
The performance of the radiation module was assessed using a
case with realistic dimensions and initial conditions, which was
simplified enough as to allow the influence of the aerosol direct
effect to be
isolated from other effects that would interfere in a real-world
the treatment of the synthetic case, the mesoscale boundary layer model
was used with an extended version of the radiation model IRIS, by
radiation module OPAC for the computation of the optical
characteristics of the
The purpose of the test
case was to examine the
aerosols of four different compositions on the evolution of
The compositions correspond to four of the aerosol types defined in the
data base, namely Continental clean (KS), Continental averagely
Continental polluted (KB) and Urban polluted (SB). The Continental
represents land areas located away from populated areas and thus
concentrations that are only weakly affected by anthropogenic
Continental average type of aerosol describes rural areas affected by
anthropogenic emissions while the Continental polluted type of aerosol
corresponds to land areas strongly influenced by human activities.
which are strongly burdened by anthropogenic emissions, are represented
urban polluted (SB) type of aerosol. A full specification of these
types is given in Hess et al
The four aerosol components with specific microphysical
properties were considered as
water-soluble consist again of several substances. For the description of
the size distributions of the individual aerosol components, log-normal
are used. The vertical profiles of temperature
the four aerosol types are shown in Figure 4.1.2a. The profiles shown
(12:00) of the fourth simulation day at a location 10 km downwind the
boundary (i.e. on the domain centre). Representation of the development
of the speed profile over the length of the computational domain are
shown in Figure 4.1.2b. See more details in MEGAPOLI
profiles calculated for the four aerosol types within the 2500 m
Profiles were calculated for a location 10 km downwind the inflow
boundary (elevations are above sea
level); and (b):
the development of the speed profile over the length of the
domain (2500 m height) (elevations are above sea level).
Urban and micro-scale modelling with
simulations with urbanisation
using the Enviro-HIRLAM provide the possibility to incorporate urban
into mesoscale meteorological and air pollution dispersion modelling.
Applications of the model in the framework of WP4 have revealed
effects on both the meteorological and concentration fields. The
suggested multi-scale modelling system is certainly
more expensive than
traditional two-way nesting techniques but provides new insight into
underlying phenomena which requires further analysis. The Enviro-HIRLAM is a fully on-line integrated modeling
system (Korsholm, 2009; Baklanov et al.,
et al., 2008). It is based on the reference version of the HIgh
Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) developed for numerical weather prediction
with implemented atmospheric chemical transport (ACT) modules into
HIRLAM. The urban parameterisations
which could be implemented into the Enviro-HIRLAM
include the following: a) anthropogenic heat flux
and roughness in the regional
to global scales (Baklanov et al., 2008),
b) a “building effects” parameterization (BEP) in the mesoscale and
(Martilli et al, 2002), c) a soil
model for the sub-mesoscale urban version, SM2-U (Dupont et
and d) an obstacle-resolved approach (Nuterman
2008; Nuterman et al, 2008). Some
of these urban parameterizations (mentioned above) have been
tested for the operational DMI-HIRLAM NWP model with a focus on the
metropolitan area and surroundings (Mahura
et al., 2008ab; Mahura et al., 2009). Focusing more on the obstacle-resolved
approach, microscale nesting can be realised with an aid of the
Model for Urban Environment (M2UE; Nuterman 2008). It is
a comprehensive Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) type obstacle-resolving urban wind flow and dispersion
is based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes approach and
two-equation k−ε turbulence closure. M2UE was developed in cooperation
with the Tomsk
(Nuterman et al, 2008). The necessary boundary
and initial conditions for the nested M2UE model originate from the NWP
of rougher resolution by downscaling from regional to urban levels (i.e
km to 5 km and down to finer resolution of 1.4-2.5 km). M2UE has been already tested with downscaling
for urban air pollution
and emergency preparedness applications in combination with the
model (Baklanov et al, 2008).
However, the most interesting is possible up-scaling which is expected
into account the street-level effects on formation of wind-flow
and atmospheric transport of pollution on the local- and city-scales.A version
of Enviro-HIRLAM model was used for down-scaling in the case of a
area of Copenhagen,
where simulation of meteorological fields and air pollution within the
urban area was carried out. For this area simulation was performed by
the M2UE which
is resolving real building structure and using boundary and initial
from the larger area. For sensitivity study of the release position two
separate runs were carried out, where the release position was changed
by 10 m
(see positions 1 and 2 in Figure 4.4ab, respectively). For the
case (position 2) the release took place between 2 buildings within the
for the second case (position 1) the release occurred close to the
within aerodynamic shadow). In Figure 4.4a the near surface velocity
and iso-surfaces of concentrations for both release positions are
analysis shows that this small variation of the release location leads
to a large
change of the plume dispersion. In the first case it is transported
the buildings by the main airstream to the outer border. In the second
case it is
turned to the right and it is much more slowly transported through the
street canyon to the right border of the modelling domain. See more details in MEGAPOLI
Figure 4.1.3 : Near surface
velocity field and isosurfaces of
concentration: 10 m difference of release position (left and right) for
Task 4.2: Multiscale
chemical processes - from the city to the street scale (lead: FORTH)
has initiated work with new modules for inorganic
(interactions of gases with dust, use of ISORROPIA-II for aerosol
thermodynamics) and organic aerosol physicochemical transformations
secondary organic aerosol yields and use of the volatility basis set)
as the investigation of the effect of grid size on the simulation of
aerosol-phase chemical transformations. The PMCAMx chemical transport
(CTM) was used to simulate air quality focusing on the PM2.5
composition in the north-eastern United States using two
km grid and one that has a nested subdomain with 12´12
km resolution. The performance of the model was evaluated using PM2.5
and gas-phase measurements from the mostly urban EPA Speciation Trends
(STN) and the mostly rural Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual
Environments (IMPROVE) for a summer period in July 2001 and a winter
is performing model calculations of London using the WRF/CMAQ
mesoscale model, while UHel had developed and is currently testing an
dynamic model (SALSA) which will be implemented in SILAM and
for regional case studies.
of Multi-scale PMCAMx
Two simulations were performed for the
same modelling domain in the Eastern US: one using the traditional
domain that has been used in previous applications of PMCAMx in the
area (Karydis et
al. 2007) and one
with a multi-scale grid “zooming” in the northeastern US.
to the model include
wind components, temperature, pressure, water vapor, vertical
clouds, and rainfall, all created using the meteorological model MM5
(Grell et al, 1995). The emission
used is the Midwest Regional Planning Organization’s Base E inventory
(2003) with corrected EC emissions (Lane
al, 2007; Karydis et al,
different emission inventory is used for weekdays, Saturdays, and
during both seasons. Ammonia emissions used in this model are from the Carnegie Mellon University
ammonia emission inventory of Pinder et
al (2004). The simulations with a coarse domain require 7.7 CPU operating hours on a Linux PC per simulation day while the
require 9.6 CPU hours for the simulation of 24 hours (a 25% increase in
computational cost). The ability of a CTM to reproduce
past events is typically
quantified by different statistical parameters, most of which are
the differences between model predictions and measurements. For the
of the different versions of PMCAMx (coarse and fine grids) we use daily average PM measurements conducted during July
2001 and January 2002 throughout
the Northeastern United States (inside the high resolution
sub-domain) in 16 rural IMPROVE sites (rural Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual
Environments) and 13
STN sites (urban EPA
Speciation Trends Network). A
multiplier of 1.4 is
applied to convert measured OC to organic mass (OM).
The mean error (ERROR), mean bias
(BIAS), fractional error (FERROR) and
fractional bias (FBIAS) were calculated for coarse grid and finer grid
For example, sulfate is the
dominant hygroscopic PM2.5 component during the summer
the Northeastern US due to high SO2
and favourable conditions for photochemical sulfate formation (warm and
environment). Sulfate is mostly secondary and is formed relatively
oxidation of sulfur dioxide proceeds at a rate of a few percent per
resulting in relatively regional spatial distribution with small
gradients. Results of simulations are shown in Figure 4.2.1. More detailed analysis for other
species such as nitrate,
ammonium, organic mass, elemental
carbon, PM2.5 in the coarse and
nested grids is given MEGAPOLI
It was found that defining the model grid size can improve its
simulating physical and chemical processes simply by updating frequency
thought it is a costly option in terms of computation
resources and data requirement. It was therefore important to examine
this application, the expected benefits justify requirements. In
cases, the finer grid scale resolved the texture of small-scale
for particle species better then the coarse grid. But there is no
guarantee that the improvements are always such as intuitively
Nesting should not just be taken as simple grid refinement for selected
It has to be accompanied by the use of appropriately resolved and
input data sets for emissions, land type and topography. Otherwise, the
accuracy by nesting may remain low. It
was observed observed
that the coarse
grid predictions are characterized by a general smoothing of the
through out the domain. During July predicted concentration of main
the fine and coarse grid had small variations in average predicted
concentrations. The fine grid captures the maximum concentration value
organic mass and elemental carbon with high peaks in the polluted areas. See more details in MEGAPOLI
Figure 4.2.1 : Predicted average ground
concentration of sulfates (μg m-3) of
the (ac) coarse and (bd) fine grids during (ab) July 2001 and (cd) January 2002.
Interactions between air quality and meteorology/climate (lead:
results by AUTH of an on-line version of
MEMO/MARS to quantify effects of the direct aerosol effect have been
the assessment of the coupled model system performance,
meteorological parameters were calculated for a synthetic test case
with a flat
topography assuming different types of aerosol composition. A
coupled calculations reveals that the radiative forcing due to the
effect has a substantial impact on certain meteorological variables and
development of a lower inversion layer.
At the same time, DMI has been using Enviro-HIRLAM model for the study
in relation to the relative impact of urban effects vs. aerosol first
second indirect effects. This is being done using a domain covering 665´445
km2 around Paris,
for the period 28/6/2005 - 03/07/2005. FORTH
has been using PMCAMx-UF (UltraFine) to simulate together with the
mass/composition distribution, the aerosol number distribution starting
nm. This is in order to investigate the formation of new particles and
growth to CCN size. It will be important to compare the results to both
campaigns and also the results of Enviro-HIRLAM.
Source apportionment – identification and quantification of
relevant pathways (lead: AUTH)
A thorough review of source
using a synthetic case over an urban area has been partially performed,
building the model set-up to test some of the most used source
methods, namely Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Positive Matrix
Factorization (PMF), Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) and UNMIX. The recent
availability of high resolution emission data for Paris will allow the application of
those methods for a realistic case.
currently uses the Particle Source Apportionment
Technology (PSAT) (Wagstrom et al, 2008)
of PMCAMx to simulate directly
the contributions of different source types and source areas to the
concentrations of particulate matter over Europe.
The major advantage of PSAT is that it describes the source
secondary particulate matter together with that of primary.
Task 4.5: Exposure
estimates (lead: FMI)
the reporting period, FMI have conducted
various exposure model refinement and evaluation studies. The Institute
Health and Welfare (IHW) in Finland and the FMI team have developed
evaluating the exposures, especially using intake fractions, on an
urban (Loh et al, 2009) and on an
European scale (Tainio et al, 2009a). Several
journal articles have been published in this area, most recently Tainio
et al (2010). The aim is to apply the methodologies
in Paris and London, in collaboration with the University of
have also evaluated
population exposure distributions using an urban scale probabilistic
model (Hänninen et al, 2009), and
analysed population exposure
to primary fine particles from vehicular traffic and domestic wood
combustion (Tainio et al, 2009b).
There has also been an analysis of the influence of the
model spatial resolution on the computed exposure values.
has been developing a sub-grid variability method
for the exposure assessments in WP4.
Evaluation of zooming approaches describing multiscale physical
processes (lead: AUTH)
Report was written
and available as report at
MEGAPOLI public web-site. Moussiopoulos
Douros J., Tsegas G. (Eds.) (2010): Evaluation of Zooming Approaches
De-scribing Multiscale Physical Processes. Deliverable D4.1, MEGAPOLI
Scientific Report 10-03, MEGAPOLI-06-REP-2010-01, 41p.
Evaluation of zooming approaches describing multiscale chemical
transformations (lead: FORTH)
Report was written
and available as report at the MEGAPOLI public web-site. Dhurata Koraj,
Spyros N. Pandis (2010): Evaluation of Zooming Approaches Describing
Multis-Scale Chemical Transformations. Deliverable D4.2, MEGAPOLI
Report 10-05, MEGAPOLI-08-REP-2010-01, 29p.
Investigation of meteorological patterns favouring development of
urban air pollution episodes (lead: DMI)
Report was written
and available as report at the MEGAPOLI public
web-site. Baklanov A., Mahura
A. (Eds.) (2010): Interactions between Air Quality and Meteorology,
Deliverable D4.3, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 10-10,
Deliverable 4.4: Evaluation
of Methodologies for Exposure Analysis in Urban Areas and Application
to Selected Megacities (lead: FMI)
Report was written
and available as report at the MEGAPOLI public
A., Kangas L., Riikonen K., Kukkonen J., Soares J., Denby B., Cassiani
M., Finardi S., Radice P., (2010): Evaluation of Methodologies for
Exposure Analysis in Urban Areas and Application to Selected
Megacities. Deliverable D4.4, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 10-18,
Deliverable 4.5: Exposure Maps for Selected Megacities (lead: FMI)
Report was written and available as report at the
web-site. Soares J., A.
Karppinen, B. Denby, S. Finardi, J. Kukkonen, M. Cassiani, P. Radice,
M.Williams (2010): Exposure Maps for Selected Megacities. Deliverable
D4.5, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 10-19, MEGAPOLI-22-REP-2010-11, 26p.
Deliverable 4.6: Evaluation of Source Apportionment Methods (lead: AUTH)
Report was written and available as report at the
web-site. Moussiopoulos N.,
Douros J., Tsegas G. (Eds) (2010): Evaluation of Source Apportionment
Methods. Deliverable D4.6, MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 10-22,
: Selection of a Megacity for exposure estimates
and mapping (lead: FMI, AUTH; month 18) has been achieved.
Significant results: Methodologies and scientific
achievements related to WP including partners’ contributions
magnitude of urban effects in comparison to the
first and second indirect aerosol feedbacks has been studied by DMI
using the Paris
area as a test case
(specific episode), by means of the on-line coupled Enviro-HIRLAM
Results indicated that aerosol indirect effects modify daytime
up to 4ºC and PBL height by up to 900 m. NO2 concentrations
shown to be moderately affected. Urban effects are interacting in a
way with effects of urban emissions, therefore in order to model
effects of megacities online coupled/integrated models with two-way
of meteorological and chemical/aerosol processes need to be considered.
vs. aerosol feedbacks were estimated to exhibit the same order of
effects on mixing height, but with strong sensitivity of chemistry and
non-linearity. The fist indirect effect was found to have a much
influence than the second one, while indirect effects induce large
NO2. Urban effects, on the other hand, mainly influence
temperature at 2 m.
on the above results, a first estimate of the
expected effects of urban/megacity on the climate change/global warming
attempted: on the local and meso-scales, an observable effect is
occur, both via the influence of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and the
plume. On the regional and continental scale, such effects can also be
since the urban plume can extend up to thousands of km. On a global
effect of UHI is expected to be diminished but the influence of the
(in particular, GHGs and aerosols) needs to be further investigated.
revised version of the PMCAMx model (called
PMCAMx-2008) developed by FORTH, was applied to Mexico City and
against the measurements collected during the MCMA-2003 study (Karydis et al, 2009; Tsimpidi et al, 2009). The
results of the
evaluation were very encouraging about the updated model which will be
the rest of the MEGAPOLI project. The effect of grid size on the
gas and aerosol-phase chemical transformations has been investigated
for the Eastern US domain (Koraj and
Pandis, 2009). The model
results were evaluated against measurements by the STN and IMPROVE
The improvement in the model predictions going from a 36´36
km domain to a 12´12
km in this area was small in the summer and modest
during the winter.
simulations for the Paris
area were performed by AUTH using the
MEMO model under different model configurations. Sensitivity tests
several data assimilation schemes were investigated in order to
model performance in respect to the driving boundary conditions.
assessment of the simulation has been performed using statistical
(Index of Agreement, Correlation Coefficient), providing encouraging
metamodelling methodology has also been developed for the
implementation of an efficient two-way coupling between a mesoscale and
microscale CFD model for calculations over extended densely-built urban
model system was applied to a meteorological case covering the urban
area of Athens
and the results
were compared to the traditional approach of modifying the roughness
over urban areas. It was found that the coupled system on average
predicts lower wind velocities over most of the urban cells while the
production of turbulent kinetic energy becomes
pronounced at the second model layer (30-40m). The distribution of wind
directions calculated for a downtown location indicates a tendency to
local flows with the prevailing street direction. Further applications
coupled model system include a summer case for Paris, currently in progress. It is
that the improved accuracy of the flows calculated by the coupled
enhance the resolving power of chemical dispersion models in urban
has also been aiming at a more accurate description of the
feedbacks involved in the direct aerosol effect, through an on-line
system that was developed consisting of the mesoscale Eulerian
model MEMO and the chemical transport model MARS-aero. For the
the coupled model system performance, meteorological parameters were
for a synthetic test case with a flat topography assuming different
aerosol composition. A comparison of coupled calculations revealed that
radiative forcing due to the direct effect has a substantial impact on
meteorological variables and the development of a lower inversion layer.
model refinement and evaluation studies were
conducted by FMI together with the Institute of Health
and Welfare (IHW) in Finland
(Loh et al, 2009) as well as on an
European scale (Tainio et al, 2009a).
An urban scale probabilistic exposure model (Hänninen et al,
2009) was also investigated for the evaluation of population
exposure distributions. Exposure to primary fine particles from
traffic and domestic wood combustion has been analysed in Tainio et al (2009b).
Socio-economic relevance and policy implications
WP4 places a particular emphasis on
interactions between air quality and meteorology at the megacity scale
turn has impacts on regional to global scales and potential mitigation
These impacts are especially pronounced in major urban centres,
improved knowledge on the importance of multi-scale transport
important aspect of this WP. The work being done has begun to produce
by the application of fine-scale air quality models in selected cities
and novel, more
accurate estimations of population exposure. Detailed concentration
of great relevance both to humans but also to the ecosystem and will
other WPs) in the quantification the impacts, resulting among others to
significant economic damage. Improved knowledge about physico-chemical
processes and methodologies will support, through incorporation to an
integrated framework, the wider European policy in its objective to
economic growth and environmental degradation and to help promote
Discussion and conclusion
Most of the work of the WP 4 is
planned. Model development and
testing has taken place at various
levels and will be able to provide the material for extracting
conclusions relevant to the scientific questions that have been posed.
WP4 reports, publications, presentations and
Douros J., Tsegas G. (Eds.) (2010
Evaluation of Zooming
Approaches Describing Multiscale Physical Processes. Deliverable D4.1, MEGAPOLI
Scientific Report 10-03
, MEGAPOLI-06-REP-2010-01, 41p, ISBN:
Dhurata Koraj, Spyros N. Pandis (2010
Evaluation of Zooming Approaches Describing Multiscale Chemical
Transformations. Deliverable D4.2, MEGAPOLI
Scientific Report 10-05
, MEGAPOLI-08-REP-2010-01, 29p, ISBN:
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Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute and DMI, Research
U.S., A. Baklanov,
Gross, A. Mahura, B.H. Sass, and E. Kaas,
(2008): Online coupled chemical weather
forecasting based on HIRLAM– overview and prospective of Enviro-HIRLAM.
HIRLAM Newsletter, 54, (http://www.HIRLAM.org).
A. Mahura, A. Baklanov, A. Gross, C. Petersen, and M. Beekmann, (2009):
Aerosol-meteorology feedbacks on short time-scale in a convective case.
LADCO (2003): Midwest Regional Planning Organization: Base E modeling inventory. Report prepared by Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium. http://www.ladco.org/tech/emis/BaseE/baseEreport.pdf.
Lane, T.E., R.W. Pinder, S. Manish, S.N. Pandis, (2007): Source contributions to primary organic aerosol: Comparison of the results of a source-resolved model and the chemical mass balance approach.
T. E., N.M. Donahue, and S.N. Pandis, (2008):
Simulating secondary organic aerosol formation using the volatility
approach in a chemical transport model, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7439-7451.
M.M., J. Soares, A. Karppinen, and K. Kukkonen, (2009):
Intake fraction distributions for benzene from vehicles in the Helsinki
area. Atmos. Environ., 43, 301–310.
Martilli, A., A.
Clappier and M.W. Rotach, (2002): An
Urban Surface Exchange Parameterisation for Mesoscale Models, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 104, 261–304.
Martilli, A., (2007):
Current research and future
challenges in urban mesoscale modelling, Int.
J. of Climatology, 27, 1909-1918
Th. Flassak, D. Berlowitz and P. Sahm, (1993):
Simulations of the Wind Field in Athens
With the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model MEMO, Environmental
Software, 8, 29-42.
A.V. Starchenko and A.A. Baklanov, (2008):
Development and evaluation of a microscale meteorological model for
of airflows in urban terrain, J.
Computational Technologies, 13(3), 37–43.
Pinder, R.W., R. Strader, C.I. Davidson, and P.J. Adams, (2004): A temporally and spatially resolved ammonia emission inventory for dairy cows in the United States, Atmos. Environ., 38: 3747– 3756.
Sievinen, P., J. Praks, M.
Hallikainen, J. Koskinen, A. Hellsten, and J. Kukkonen (2009):
‘Urban morphology retrieval by means of remote sensing for
the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and micro-meteorology’, Digest IEEE International Symposium on
Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS’09), Cape Town, South Africa,
M., M. Sofiev and J. Kukkonen, (2009a):
Evaluation of the European population intake fractions for European and
anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter emissions. Atmos.
Environ. 43, 3052-3059.
M., M. Sofiev and J. Kukkonen, (2009b):
A simple concept for GIS-based estimation of population exposure to
fine particles from vehicular traffic and domestic wood combustion. Boreal
Environment Research. 14,
J.T. Tuomisto, J. Pekkanen, N. Karvosenoja,
K. Kupiainen, P. Porvari, M. Sofiev, A. Karppinen, L. Kangas, and J.
Kukkonen, (2010): Uncertainty in health risks due
to anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter from different source
Atmos. Environ., in press.
G., Ph. Barmpas, I. Douros, and N. Moussiopoulos,
A metamodelling implementation of a two way coupled
model for urban area simulations. In: Ðuričić, V. (ed.)
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmonisation
Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Cavtat,
6-9 October, pp. 181-186.
Tsegas, G., Ph. Barmpas,
I. Douros, and N. Moussiopoulos, (2009): Implementation of efficient
two-way mesoscale-microscale coupling using interpolating metamodels.
Steyn, D.G. and Rao, S.T. (eds.) Air
Pollution Modeling and its Application XX, Springer Science, 33-37.
A.P., V.A. Karydis, M. Zavala, L. Molina, I.
Ulbrich, J.L. Jimenez, and S.N. Pandis, (2009): Evaluation of
volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol
in the Mexico City metropolitan area, Atmos.
Chem. Phys. Discus., 9, 13693-13737.
K.M., S.N. Pandis, G. Yarwood, G.M. Wilson,
and R.E. Morris, (2008): Development and application of a
computationally efficient particulate matter apportionment algorithm in
three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5650-5659.
FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011