Partner 20 - WMO
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
Expertise and experience of the organization
WMO is a specialized United Nations (UN) Organization
that has the mandate for weather, climate, operational hydrology, and related
geophysical sciences within the UN system. It is the UN system’s authorative
voice on the state and behaviour of the atmosphere, its interaction with
the oceans, the climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water
resources. WMO plays a leading role in international efforts to monitor and
protect the environment through its Programmes and is instrumental in providing
advice and assessments to governments on matters related to these issues
and in contributing towards ensuring the sustainable development and well-being
of nations. The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) of the Atmospheric Research
and Environment Programme (AREP) department is the only global long-term
atmospheric chemistry and air pollution programme. The measurement variables
of GAW include greenhouse gases, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, aerosols,
UV radiation, reactive gases, and precipitation chemistry. The principal
goal of GAW implementation is to contribute to efforts in reducing environmental
risks to society and meeting the requirements of environmental conventions;
to strengthen capabilities to predict climate, weather and air quality; and
to contribute to scientific assessments in support of environmental policy;
through maintaining and applying global, long-term observations of the chemical
composition and selected physical characteristics of the atmosphere; emphasizing
quality assurance and quality control; and through delivering integrated
products and services to users. The GAW Urban Research Meteorology and Environment
(GURME) was established in 1999, it is the GAW activity most closely focused
on air quality. This project bridges over a wide variety of Organizations
and authorities, including environmental agencies, that collaborate under
the WMO GURME umbrella in order to improve their citizens’ environment. GURME
addresses the end-to-end aspects of air quality that link observational issues,
data assimilation techniques, numerical models, dissemination methods, and
capacity building. GURME is on one hand applying the latest research and
developments in modelling, forming good collaboration between research and
operational communities, and on the other building capacity in developing
countries, for instance through pilot projects.
Role and contribution
WMO will provide the link to megacities outside of Europe
and developing countries through GURME. WMO will participate in WP 8 as a
Principal personnel involved
Dr. Liisa Jalkanen, Acting Chief/Environment
Division/AREP leads the WMO GAW and GURME programmes. An important part of
this job is to initiate, coordinate and catalyze global, regional and sub-regional
cooperation and action for GAW and GURME and in response to environmental
problems and emergencies. The main tasks are to support atmospheric research
and to assist developing countries in implementing atmospheric chemistry
activities through GAW and GURME. This includes keeping abreast of developments
in, and new observational requirements for, atmospheric radiation, changes
in the chemical composition, and physical characteristics of the atmosphere.
GAW publishes guidelines and recommendations for instruments, observations
and their dissemination. She is responsible in WMO for environmental activities
in Europe, specifically she continues to co-chair, now for six years, the
Task Force on Measurements and Modelling (TFMM) of the EMEP programme, under
UN ECE. She is the WMO focal point for COST actions and specifically the
representative in COST-726, -728 and -732. She collaborates with many UN
agencies, these address health, environment, economics and disaster issues.
She has managed the WMO/GAW GURME project since its establishment in 1999.
In addition to above mentioned GURME activities, the GURME Training Team
with international participation has developed a comprehensive training course
on air quality forecasting that is delivered in different regions of the
world. Dr Jalkanen was employed by the Air Quality Department of FMI (1983-1996),
when she joined WMO.
Selected relevant publications
Jalkanen, L., (2007): Air Quality, in Elements
for Life, Tudor Rose, WMO.
Jalkanen, L., Mäkinen, A., Häsänen, E., Juhanoja, J., (2000):
The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmos. aerosols,
deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region. Sci Tot
Env. 262 (2000) 123.
Swietlicki, E., Kemp, K., Wåhlin, P., Bartnicki, J., Jalkanen, L.,
Krejci, R., (1999): Source-receptor relationships for heavy metals in the
European atmosphere, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Res., B 150, 322.
Baltensberger, U., Jalkanen, L., (1998): Aerosol studies in the WMO’s Global
Atmosphere Watch Programme, Journal of Aerosol Science, 29, S165.
Jalkanen, L., Virkkula, A., (1995): The effect of emissions from Estonia
and the St. Petersburg area on air quality on the southeast coast of Finland,
Paper 282. In: Anttila, P. et al. (ed.), Proc. of the 10th World Clean Air
Congress, Espoo, Finland, May 28 - June 2, 1995, Vol. 2. The Finnish Air
Pollution Prevention Society, Helsinki, Finland.
FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011