Partner 17 - UHel (Finland)
University of Helsinki  (UHel)

Expertise and experience of the organization
The Department of Physical Sciences at the UHel has over 25 years tradition in atmospheric research. 60 scientists and doctoral students are currently engaged in this area. The main research subjects are aerosol dynamics (nucleation, condensation, coagulation, deposition), formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud droplets, atmospheric chemistry, urban aerosols, forest-atmosphere interactions (fluxes, photosynthesis, water transport), aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, atmospheric boundary-layer theory, modelling and parameterization. The basic theoretical resources consist of detailed computer codes describing basic phenomena such as multi-component nucleation and condensation, photosynthesis, and of extensive model for aerosol dynamics, atmospheric chemistry and cloud microphysics. The basic experimental resources consist of three field stations (SMEAR : I, II, Urban) and a state-of-art aerosol laboratory. In the field stations e.g. aerosol dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, micrometeorology, gas exchange between forest and atmosphere, soil chemistry and forest growth are measured continuously.

Role and contribution

UHel is responsible for the aerosol science aspects including aerosol-climate interaction, ground based observations and remote sensing, and for development of improved parameterization of the turbulent and mean structures of UABLs for use in climate and air quality models.

Principal personnel involved
Prof. Markku Kulmala - has published more than 300 articles on aerosols, clouds, nucleation and biosphere-atmosphere interactions; has participated in 21 EU projects and has procured 24 M€ in research income (PGD-30). He acts as a Research Unit leader in the Research Unit on Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Atmospheric Composition and Climate Change (Centre of Excellence, Academy of Finland). He is also the coordinator of 6FP IP EUCAARI, head of one Nordic centre of Excellence (Research Unit on Biosphere - Aerosol - Cloud - Climate Interactions) as well as the corresponding NorFa Graduate school (Carbon - Biosphere - Aerosol - Cloud - Climate Interactions). He has received the Smoluchovski Award in 1997; the World Cultural Council, Honorary Member, Helsinki 2003; the Finnish Science Award, Helsinki 2003; the International Aerosol Fellow Award, Budapest 2004; the Wilhelm Bjerknes Medal of the European Geoscience Union 2007.
Prof. Gerrit de Leeuw - he has published ca. 65 peer reviewed articles in the fields of aerosols, remote sensing and ocean-atmosphere interaction. He has participated in 15(3) EU projects and has procured 5-6 M€ in research income. Chair Programme Committee for Remote Sensing of the Netherlands National Research Foundation NWO-ALW, member SOLAS International SSC, WCRP Working Group on Surface Fluxes, SOLAS IMP2 SC, EC FP6 NoE ACCENT AT2 and Aerosols SSC’s, Assoc. Editor of JGR-Atmospheres.
Prof. Sergej S. Zilitinkevich - graduated from Dept. Theoretical Physics, Leningrad Uni. (1959). Degrees: PhD (1961), Dr Sci (1970), Prof. Geophysics (Acad Sci USSR, 1972), Prof. Meteorology (Uppsala Uni., 1997). In 1966 established Leningrad Division of Institute of Oceanology Acad. Sci. Since 1991 in Western Europe: 1991 Denmark, 1992-98 Germany, 1998-2003 Chair of Meteorology at Uppsala Uni., Sweden; since 2004 Marie Curie Chair holder at Uni. of Helsinki, Finland. Projects coordinated: LAND-3 (1.5 million $), two INTAS, EU TEMPUS (0.5 million EUR), etc. 8 books and 160 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 3-4 invited lectures per year. Wilhelm Bjerknes Medal of EGU (2000). Member of Academia Europaea.

Selected relevant publications
Kulmala, M., A. Laaksonen, R.J. Charlson, P. Korhonen, (1997), Clouds without supersaturation. Nature, 388, 336-337.
Kulmala M., L. Pirjola, J. M. Mäkelä, (2000), Stable sulphate clusters as a source of new atmospheric particles. Nature, 404, 66-69.
Kulmala M., Vehkamäki H., Petäjä T., Dal Maso M., Lauri A., Kerminen V.-M., Birmili W., McMurry P.H., (2004), Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmos. particles: A review of observations. J. Aeros. Sci., 35, 143-176.
Kulmala M, (2003), How Particles Nucleate and Grow. Science 302, 1000-1001.
Zilitinkevich, S.S., (1991): Turbulent Penetrative Convection, Avebury Technical, Aldershot, 180 p.
Zilitinkevich S. S., Esau I. N., (2005): Resistance and heat/mass transfer laws for neutral and stable planetary boundary layers: old theory advanced and re-evaluated. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 131, 1863-1892.
Zilitinkevich, S., Esau, I., Baklanov, A., (2007): Further comments on the equilibrium height of neutral and stable planetary boundary layers. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 133, 265-271.

FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011