Partner 14 - TNO (The Netherlands)
Built Environment and Geosciences (TNO)

Expertise and experience of the organization
TNO, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, is one of Europe's leading independent research and development organizations. As of January 1st, 2005 TNO has a new organizational shape, with five large entities replacing the fifteen former TNO Institutes. One of these, TNO Built Environment and Geosciences (TNO-BEG) contributes to MEGAPOLI. The Business unit Environment, Health and Safety of TNO-BEG is an expert centre and contract research unit for industry and government in the field of sustainable development and environmental research. It has a long lasting experience in compilation of emission inventories to air for priority pollutants, GHG’s, particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POP) at international level on various scales and supporting national experts in reporting emission data to e.g., the EU and EMEP programme. under the UNECE Convention on Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants (CLRTAP).

Role and contribution

TNO will lead the WP on emissions (WP1) and provide high resolution gridded emission data at various scales to the modelling and mitigation WPs. Speciation of relevant fractions of pollutants (e.g. carbonaceous particulate matter) will be given to better estimate the climate forcing and adverse health impacts of these pollutants. To be able to focus on megacities and their impact on (local) climate and air quality high resolution data will be needed. TNO will work on improving the spatial resolution of the gridded emission data to the level of detail needed in WP5 and WP6. TNO will bring its expertise on regional air quality modelling into WP5 using its LOTOS-EUROS model.

Principal personnel involved
Prof. Peter Builtjes has been working in atmospheric chemistry modelling for the last 30 years, and has written over 40 double refereed papers. He is working at TNO, and part-time ( 20 %) at the Free Univ. Berlin as honorary Prof. in Atmospheric Chemistry. He has coordinated several EU-DG Research Projects, most recently the AIR4EU- 6 FP project.
Prof. Hugo Denier van der Gon is Senior Emission Inventory Expert at TNO and provides emission inventories to modelling groups and / or policy advising bodies such as the UNECE Task Forces on HM and POP, MSC-EAST, EU IP GEMS, German Umwelt Bundesambt (UBA) and Dutch Institutes (RIVM, MNP). He has authored ~ 30 peer-reviewed articles on mechanisms, emission and mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, particulate matter, heavy metals and POP and participated in 3 EU projects. (FP-5, FP-6).  He is a reviewer for the IPCC guidelines (2006) and contributor to IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2000)
Prof. Dick van den Hout is a senior scientist at TNO and has been responsible for improving the user orientation of research in several FP research projects and networks, e.g. the Integaire network on urban air pollution mitigation. Since 1993 he has been the Commission’s primary consultant on the development and implementation of air pollution policies and legislation. He has participated in many international working groups, of which several dealt with abatement strategies. He has been the head of the European Topic Centre on Air Quality and is a visiting Prof. at the University of Hertfordshire, UK.

Selected relevant publications
Schaap M., H.A..C. Denier van der Gon, (2007): On the variability of Black Smoke and carbonaceous aerosols in the Netherlands, Atmospheric Environment, In Press.
Schaap, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H. A. C; Dentener, F. J.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Van Loon, M.; ten Brink, H. M.; Putaud, J.-P.; Guillaume, B.; Liousse, C.; Builtjes, P. J. H. (2004): Anthropogenic black carbon and fine aerosol distribution over Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (D18), D18207,10.1029/2003JD004330.
Denier van der Gon H.A.C., A. Bleeker, (2005): Indirect N2O emission due to atmospheric N deposition for the Netherlands, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 5827–5838.
Denier van der Gon, H.A.C., M.J. Kropff N. van Breemen, R. Wassmann, R.S. Lantin, E. Aduna, T. M. Corton , H.H. van Laar, (2002): Optimizing grain yields reduces CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields, Proceedings National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) USA, 99 (19), 12021-12024.
Schaap M., F. Sauter, R.M.A. Timmermans, M. Roemer, G. Velders, J. Beck, P.J.H. Builtjes (2007): The LOTOS-EUROS model: description, validation and latest developments, Int. J. of Environmental Pollution, In Press.

FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011