Partner 9 - ICTP (Italy)
The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)

Expertise and experience of the organization
Founded in 1964 by Abdus Salam (Nobel Laureate), the ICTP operates under the aegis of two United Nations Agencies: UNESCO (United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), and is regularized by a seat agreement with the Government of Italy, which provides the major part of the Centre's funding. The main aim of the ICTP is to foster the growth of advanced studies and research in physical and mathematical sciences, especially in developing countries. ICTP acts as an international forum for scientific contacts between scientists from all countries. It provides facilities to conduct original research to its visitors, Assoc.s and fellows. On average, ICTP welcomes 3600 scientists a year. Over 50% of the scientists who have attended the ICTP activities since 1964 came from developing countries; until now, 150 nations and 45 international organizations have been represented. The main research fields of interest at ICTP are: Mathematics, Physics of Condensed Matter, Physics of High and Intermediate Energies, Earth System Physics, Physics of the Living State, Digital Communications and Computer Networking. The Earth System Physics section (ESP) was established in 2005 and conducts research on regional climate modelling, anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, chemistry-climate interactions, biosphere-atmosphere interactions, seismology, physics of the lithosphere, earthquake prediction. The ESP maintains and develops a state-of-the-art regional climate model  (RegCM). This model was developed during the last decade and has been  used for a wide variety of applications, from paleo climate to possible future climate simulations at the regional scale. The RegCM has been applied to a wide range of regions in the globe (Europe and Mediterranean Basin, US, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central, East and South Asia, South America) and has been run at horizontal grid intervals of 20-100 km. It has capability of interactive coupling to an  aerosol model and to a one dimensional lake model. The RegCM is currently used by a wide range of users, including many from developing countries. The ESP is currently participating in EU projects (ENSEMBLES, CECILIA, WATCH) and is involved in projects proposed for the Italian National Climate Research Program. The ESP has access to the supercomputing facilities of CINECA.

Role and contribution

 ICTP  will use RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) coupled with aerosol module. The top-of-atmosphere radiative direct and indirect forcings and related climatic effects will be calculated online by RegCM3. The analysis of climate effects will include variables such as temperature, clouds, precipitation, circulation and the surface hydrological cycle, as well as radiation-aerosol interactions and cloud-aerosol interactions. The regional model simulations will focus on the European region and one extra-European domain, either Asia or Central America. Sets of regional simulations are planned, each of 10-20 years length, and the simulation period will include the special observing period planned in WP5.  Each set will include three simulations, one without aerosol effects (control run), and the others including aerosol effects in uncoupled and coupled mode. Lateral chemical boundary conditions will be obtained from corresponding global model simulations (WP5 and WP6).

Principal personnel involved
Dr. Filippo Giorgi (Prof.; Ph: +39 040 2240 425; Fax:  +39-040–2240449, e-mail: - is currently a senior scientist in ICTP and head of ESP, which he joined in May 1998. He obtained a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the Georgia Insititutte of Technology in June of 1986, and worked as a scientist at NCAR (Boulder, CO, USA) from 1986 to 1998. He co-authored over 140 refereed publications and was an investigator in over 20 research grants in the U.S. and Europe. He pioneered the field of regional climate modelling, for which he has over 20 years of working experience. Other research experience and interests include global climate, mesoscale and aerosol modelling, biosphere-atmosphere and chemistry-climate interactions, climate change and variability (focus on the regional scale.)
Dr. Ashraf Zakey (PhD; Ph:+39-040-2240-385,  Fax:  +39-040–2240449, and - is director of air pollution department, Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo-Egypt,  currently he is visiting scientist researcher in ICTP.  Since 1992 he worked as a scientist at the Egyptian Meteorological Authority(EMA). He obtained a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the Cairo University in September  of 2001. He has long experience with Air pollution modelling and climate related issues. He implemented the desert dust and sea-salt nature aerosols in regional Climate model (RegCM) and their feedback on climate. Also, he has experiences in the multiphase chemistry – Heterogeneous chemistry and secondary organic aerosols.  He got two post doctoral research periods at Environment Canada ( Air Quality Branch ) and  Gothenburg University-Sweden.
Selected relevant publications
Giorgi, F. Bi, X., Qian, Y, Direct radiative forcing and regional climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia: Aregional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model study. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4439, doi:10.1029/2001JD001066.
Giorgi, F., Bi, X. Q., Qian, Y. (2003): Indirect vs. direct effects of anthropogenic sulfate on the climate of east Asia as simulated with a regional Coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model, Climatic Change, 58, 345-376.
Solmon, F., Giorgi, F., Liousse, C., (2006): Aerosol modelling for regional climate studies: Application to anthropogenic particles and evaluation over a European/African domain, Tellus B, 15  58(1), 51–72..
Zakey, A. S., F. Solmon, F. Giorgi, (2006): Implementation and testing of a desert dust module in a regional climate model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4687-4704.

FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011