Partner 7 - FMI (Finland)
Finnish Meteorological Institute

Expertise and experience of the organization
The FMI ( has the mandate of producing reliable scientific information on the state of the atmosphere, with the aim of promoting safety and serving various needs of the public, industry and commerce, as well as contributing to scientific ends. FMI makes observations of the physical state of the atmosphere, its chemical composition, and electromagnetic phenomena. FMI also develops and applies numerical models in order to analyse and forecast various atmospheric physical and chemical processes. FMI employs about 550 people (240 involved in research). Scientists from the Air Quality Research and Earth Observation departments of the FMI will be involved in the project. The Air Quality research division has as its main task to investigate, monitor, model and report on air quality and its influencing factors. The Finnish government has designated FMI as the national air quality expert. FMI is involved in numerous international co-operative, research and assessment efforts. Current projects involve the following activities: monitoring of air quality and atmospheric composition (e.g., EMEP, HELCOM/EGAP, WMO/GAW, AMAP), research and development in air chemistry and aerosol physics (including in particular one National and two Nordic Centres of Excellence, ACCENT, EC/Environment), assessment and modelling of the dispersion, transformation and deposition of airborne pollutants from the local to continental scales (e.g., EU-funded SAPPHIRE, FUMAPEX, OSCAR, PAMCHAR, GEMS, CAIR4HEALTH).

Role and contribution

The main contributions of the FMI are the following: co-coordination of WP5, lead of the task 1.2: Biogenic and natural global emission inventory, the task 2.1: The classification and database for urban surface and morphology, and the task 3.5: Exposure estimates.

Principal personnel involved
Prof. Jaakko Kukkonen - is currently Res. Prof. and the Manager of Air Quality Research department (staff 63 persons) at FMI. He is also Visiting Prof. at the University of Hertfordshire (UK) and Adjunct Prof. (Docent) of Physics at the University of Helsinki. He is an author of 309 scientific publications (69 - in refereed international journals). He has participated in more than 10 EU projects and has procured 4 – 5 M€ in research income. He has worked in the field of atmospheric physics and chemistry, including especially the development, evaluation and application of mathematical models, the development of integrated modelling systems, model evaluation against experimental datasets, the modelling of the dispersion of particulate matter, the evaluation of population exposure, and the consequence analysis modelling of hazardous materials. He is currently the leader of the action ES0602 "Towards a European Network on Chemical Weather Forecasting and Information Systems (ENCWF)".
Prof. Jarkko T. Koskinen - has a doctorate degree from Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in electrical engineering. He is currently Res. Prof. and Head of Earth Observation programme at the FMI. He is a delegate to several international organizations (e.g., ESA, EU, Eumetsat and GEO). Previously he has worked in HUT, Finnish Environment Centre and Center for the Advancement of Technology (Tekes), where his responsibility was the co-ordination of national earth observation programme. He has also been visiting scientist in 1994-1995 at ESA-ESRIN and 1999-2000 at Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA. His research interests include microwave remote sensing of snow and boreal forest, and SAR interferometry. He has authored more than 70 international publications.
Adjunct Prof. Ari Karppinen - is Doctor of Technology, and Adjunct Prof. (Docent) of Physics at the University of Helsinki. He is currently working as the Head of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling group (17 persons) at the Air Quality Research Department. He is the author of approximately 200 scientific publications (35 - in refereed international journals). His expertise is on mathematical modelling, atmospheric physics and chemistry, particularly evaluation of urban air quality and population exposure, and model evaluation against experimental datasets.
Adjunct Prof. Mikhail Sofiev - is senior scientist at Air Quality Research department of the FMI and an Adjunct Prof. at University of Helsinki. He started his career in 1992 in the computing centre of the UN-ECE LRTAP Convention, being responsible for the development and validation of mathematical models for long-range atmospheric dispersion. He has an extensive experience in development and application of air pollution models at various scales – from meso- to hemispheric scales – and for various compounds – acidifying, toxic, aerosol, radio-active accidental releases – and in related fields: model verification, statistical methodology, data analysis, computer experiments, etc. Currently he is responsible for development and application of the modelling system SILAM and a forecasting system for an allergenic pollution. Dr. Sofiev is an author of 92 scientific publications; over 30 of them have been published in refereed international and national journals and publication series.
Selected relevant publications
Kousa, A., J. Kukkonen, A. Karppinen, P. Aarnio and T. Koskentalo, (2002): A model for evaluating the population exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area. Atmos. Environ., 36, 2109-2119.
Kukkonen, J., M. Pohjola, R.S. Sokhi, L. Luhana, N. Kitwiroon, M. Rantamäki, E.Berge, V. Oegaard, L.H. Slørdal, B. Denby, S.Finardi, (2005): Analysis and evaluation of selected local-scale PM10 air pollution episodes in four European cities: Helsinki, London, Milan and Oslo. Atmos. Environ., 39/15, 2759-2773.
Sofiev M, P. Siljamo, I. Valkama, M. Ilvonen, J. Kukkonen, (2006): A dispersion modelling system SILAM and its evaluation against ETEX data. Atmos. Environ., 40, 674–685.
Fisher, B., J. Kukkonen, M. Piringer, M.W. Rotach, M. Schatzmann, (2006): Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems: Concepts from COST 715. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 555–564.
Baklanov, A., O. Hänninen, L. H. Slørdal, J. Kukkonen, N. Bjergene, B. Fay, S. Finardi, S. C. Hoe, M. Jantunen, A. Karppinen, A. Rasmussen, A. Skouloudis, R. S. Sokhi, J. H. Sørensen, V. Ødegaard, (2007): Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 855–874.

FP7 EC MEGAPOLI, 2008-2011